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Major Glaciers and Passes in the Himalayas

Major Glaciers and Passes in the Himalayas

Major Glaciers and Passes in the Himalayas

Major Glaciers under the Himalayas

  • Major 5 glaciers are found on the Karakoram range in the state of Jammu and Kashmir –
 (i) Sasaimi
 (ii) Biafo
 (iii) Siachen
 (iv) Baltoro
 (v) Hisfar
  • Sasaimi Glacier is the largest glacier in India.  Siachen Glacier is the easternmost glacier on the Karakoram range.
  • The Siachen Glacier is located on the Karakoram mountain range near the Karakoram Pass.
  • Siachen Glacier is the origin of Nubra River.  The area around the Nubra River is known as the Nubra River Valley.
  • There are two important glaciers in the state of Uttarakhand –
 (i) Gangotri
 (ii) Milam
  • The Jemu Glacier is located on the northern border of the state of Sikkim. The origin of the Teesta River is the Jemu Glacier.
NoteTeesta River is also known as Teesa River.
  • The Teesta River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River.

 Major Passes under the Himalayas

There are five major passes in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, which are as follows –
 (i) Karakoram
 (ii) Khardungala
 (iii) Burzil
 (iv) Zojila
 (v) Banihal
  • Karakoram Pass is the highest pass in India.
  • The Karakoram Pass is located near the Siachen Glacier.
  • The China-Pakistan road route through Pakistan Occupied Kashmir passes through the Karakoram Pass.
  • Khardungla Pass is located on the Ladakh range.
  • Leh is in the south of the Ladakh range.  To reach Siachen Glacier from Leh, one has to pass through Khardungla Pass.
  • Burjil Pass and Zojila Pass are situated on the Jaskar hill.
  • The road from Srinagar to Leh passes through Zojila Pass, it is situated on the Zaskar Range.
  • The westernmost range of the Lesser Himalayas is called the Kopirpanjal range and the easternmost range is called the Dhauladhar range.
  • Srinagar is situated between the Greater Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range.
There are two passes on the Pir Panjal mountain range –
 (i) Pir Panjal Pass
 (ii) Banihal Pass
  • The valley between the Greater Himalayas and the Pir Panjal is called the Kashmir Valley.  Srinagar-Avandal Lake is located in the Kashmir Valley itself.
  • The road going from Jammu to Srinagar, NH1A, passes through Banihal pass.  The Jawahar tunnel is located in the Banihal pass itself.
  • National Highway NH1A passes through Jawahar Tunnel.
There are mainly three passes in Himachal Pradesh –
 (i) Baralachala
 (ii) Shipkila
 (iii) Rohtang Pass
  • Baralachala Pass is located on the Zaskar Range.
  • To the south of the Dhauladhar range is Mandi, an important city of Himachal Pradesh, the road from Mandi to Leh passes through the Baralachala Pass.
  • Shipkila Pass is located on the Himachal Pradesh and Tibet border.
  • Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh on the Dhauladhar range.
  • Near the Shipkila Pass, the Sutlej River enters Himachal Pradesh.
  • Sutlej river originates from Rakastal near Mansarovar Lake in Tibet.
  • Shipkila Pass is located at Jaskar Range.
  • The four major passes on the Zaskar range are Burjila, Zojila, Baralachala and Shipkila.
  • Under the Zaskar category, there are two passes in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Burjil and Zo district and under the state of Himachal Pradesh, Baralachala and Shipkila.
  • There are mainly 4 passes in Uttarakhand, Mullingala, Manala, Nitila and Lipulekh.
  • There are two major passes in the state of Sikkim namely Nathula and Jelepala.
  • Chumbi Valley is located in the state of Sikkim.  The route to Tibet via Chumbighati passes through Nathula and Jelepaladars.
  • Road trade between India and China is done through Nathula Pass.
  • There are six passes located in the state of Arunachal Pradesh namely Bomdila, Yangyap, Kangrikarpola, Diphu, Pangsad and Likhapani.
  • Bomdila, Yangyapal and Kangri Karpoladra are located on the Tibet border.
  • Diphu, Pangsad and Likhapani Pass are located on the Myanmar border.
  • Bomdila Pass is also known as Bumla Pass.
  • Tuzu Pass is located on the Manipur and Myanmar border.